Research on the quotation process design of the ho

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Research on the process design of order manufacturing quotation

with the white heat of market competition, all enterprises must face the reality of how to quickly respond to market changes, how to reduce their own costs and improve product quality. In the environment of information, resources, commodity globalization and product personalization, no enterprise can have enough resources and capabilities to meet the needs of customers alone. Enterprises must carry out division of labor and cooperation, realize resource sharing and give full play to their respective strengths

in order to adapt to the diversification and rapidity of the market, reduce inventory costs and spread risks, many enterprises have divided their products into parts and components, and issued them to some small and medium-sized enterprises with different processing capabilities in the form of orders. Some even issued the design and development of some non important parts and components directly to suppliers in the form of orders [1]. According to expert statistics, outsourcing order production can save enterprises 9% of the cost, while the product quality increases by 15%. At present, the global order market is growing at a rate of more than 30% per year. By 2007, the size of the order market has reached 1. $2trillion. Among them, the United States accounts for 2/3 of the global project order market, and Europe and Japan together account for about 1/3. Asia receives the most orders, accounting for about 45% of global orders

according to the characteristics of order manufacturing, each order has a life cycle from order intention - quotation - sample delivery - formal production - order end. Different theoretical and technical support is required at different stages of the cycle. In the quotation stage, customers often send order intention information to multiple enterprises. Therefore, enterprises can only obtain orders by submitting reasonable and competitive quotations to customers

1 characteristics and analysis of quotation process

process design is an essential work in the technical design of production-oriented enterprises and an important link in the production organization activities of manufacturing enterprises. The quality of process design directly affects the cost, quality and productivity of products; In addition, the results of process design determine the requirements for production resources, which is one of the important basis for cost accounting and quotation. Since quotation is not preparation for routine production in the whole order life cycle, it is the evaluation of manufacturing resources. Therefore, the main difference between quotation process design and production process design is that the results of process design are not directly used to guide production, but to participate in the competition among customers' supplier groups. Therefore, the methods and contents of process design are different

to sum up, quotation process design has the following characteristics:

1) temporary

quotation process design is a process design temporarily carried out in the initial stage of the order. When the quotation work is completed, the design activities will end, and generally there is no follow-up work

2) agility

due to the short time required by customers for quotation, it is generally required to reply within 72 hours, not more than one working week at most. Therefore, the quotation process design activities must be carried out in an agile organizational form

3) extensive

since the quotation process is not directly used for technical guidance in production, the quotation process is an extensive process. In design, it only needs to list the processing method, route, resources used, estimated man hours and costs of the workpiece, without giving detailed process parameters. Its corresponding transition temperature is the number of glass transition temperatures

4) decision support

quotation process design plays the following three supporting roles in order decision-making: ① technically support whether the enterprise undertakes this order. Because the quotation process design can determine whether the enterprise has the technical ability to undertake this order. ② Support the budget and quotation of manufacturing cost. Process is the fundamental basis for estimating processing cost, and processing cost is an important part of manufacturing cost. Therefore, process design can provide data basis for quotation. ③ Support customers' evaluation of suppliers' manufacturing resources. Since the processing technology is determined by the resources owned by the enterprise (including equipment and personnel), customers can estimate their production resources and production capacity through the process flow provided by the supplier

5) multi scheme

since the quotation process supports the customer's evaluation of the supplier's production capacity and the manufacturer's quotation to the customer, a variety of manufacturing process schemes should be designed for the quoted products, and through various evaluations, the best scheme with comprehensive evaluation should be selected as the final quotation process scheme

2 quotation process design

according to the above characteristics of quotation process design, put forward the process design process as shown in Figure 1

2.1 process scheme design

quotation process is mainly to evaluate the production capacity of enterprises and provide manufacturing cost data for quotation. Therefore, its design is often based on the manufacturing resources of enterprises rather than production requirements. According to the complexity of the ordered products, parts can be divided into conventional parts and unconventional parts. Conventional parts are parts that can be manufactured with the existing resources of the enterprise. For such parts, as long as a scheme is designed as the final design result. Unconventional parts, that is, parts whose existing resources cannot meet the manufacturing needs of the enterprise, for which a variety of process schemes must be designed. Generally, for unconventional parts, at least two sets of process plans should be designed, one is the process plan improved by the enterprise through manufacturing resources, and the other is the process plan shared by the enterprise through outsourcing. A variety of process design results are provided to the evaluation system for comprehensive evaluation of feasibility, cost and efficiency

2.2 methods to improve the speed of process design

as an order quotation process design, it must meet the requirements of quotation period in time. Due to the short time required by customers for quotation, they are generally required to reply within 72 hours, no more than one working week at most. Therefore, the quotation process design activities must be carried out in an agile organizational form. In order to improve the agility of process design, experienced process designers should first complete the design, because experienced process design is widely used in China, and polystyrene insulation materials are calculated in tens of millions or even billions of square meters. Personnel can comprehensively consider various factors and design high-quality schemes, which can reduce the modification time of the process; Second, we should try to use computer-aided tools to improve the speed and efficiency of providing customized solutions for customers; These two measures have been applied and popularized in current enterprises. However, many enterprises still need to improve their organizational management response to agility. It is an effective way to improve the efficiency of the whole design work to design modular division of labor and make full use of computer network for integration, and implement computer management and tracking of the whole design process

2.3 decision support of quotation process

whether it is a customer or a supplier, the decision of enterprise decision makers on orders largely depends on the process description of the ordered products. Because a set of process plan not only reflects the price data on the quotation, but also reflects the manufacturing resource capacity of the enterprise

manufacturing resource capability can be divided into technical resource capability and production resource capability. Technical resource capability reflects whether an enterprise has the technical level to manufacture products that meet the customer's product design requirements, and is a strong guarantee for product quality; It is mainly reflected in the quality and proficiency of employees, the progressiveness of equipment, the accuracy of measuring tools and so on. Once there is insufficient technical resources in the process description, the decision-maker must make a decision whether to give up the order and how to improve the technical level

production resource capacity reflects whether the enterprise can complete the quantity of products ordered by customers within the specified time, which is the guarantee of order delivery time; It is mainly reflected in the number of employees, the number of sets of equipment and the level of production scheduling management. If there is insufficient production resources in the process description, the enterprise decision-maker must make the decision of expanding production resources or finding external cooperation

2.4 process scheme evaluation and selection

the evaluation of process scheme is the basis of process selection. The evaluation of process scheme is to evaluate various process schemes of a part in the order according to certain evaluation indexes, compare the advantages and disadvantages of all aspects, and the evaluation results are often described by the data of the tool body

the process of a part is often evaluated from the following aspects: processing quality (meeting the technical requirements of the product), production speed (meeting the customer's delivery requirements) and production cost (meeting the customer's price requirements and the enterprise's own profit requirements). When making the evaluation, we must integrate the above factors for comprehensive evaluation. The production speed and production cost can be calculated directly through specific data, while the processing quality needs to be evaluated by establishing a mathematical model of fuzzy evaluation

the best processing scheme of a certain part is obtained from the evaluation of the process scheme, which is the individual optimum. However, for the whole order (multi variety order) and the production system of the enterprise, the individual optimum cannot guarantee the overall optimum. Therefore, when making the selection of the process scheme, the selected scheme should be the overall optimum and the individual is better

3 conclusion

based on the analysis of the characteristics of the quotation process design of order manufacturing products, this paper puts forward a process design method to improve the quotation response speed; It also analyzes and explains the key content in the process that the causes of this phenomenon are multifaceted. (end)

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